Tuesday, December 31, 2019

How useful is ‘structural functionalism’ or ‘society as an...

The essay will critically analyse theoretical accounts of society, in particular how useful they are in understanding how death is viewed socially in the West. It will be argued that all different theoretical models of society can be useful, but that the model ‘society as an organism’, which emphasises symbolic interactionism, is often more useful than structural functionalism on its own. My analysis will start with a look a critique of structural functionalism, using Durkheim’s analysis of suicide (1953) as an example. I then look at ‘society as an organism’ in the thought of Rousseau (1913), before turning to consider these models specifically in relation to the problem of death. I discuss our Western fear of death, and suggest, drawing†¦show more content†¦He talks of the artificial body of the government (1913: 53) and â€Å"the body of the nation (1913: 29), the body and each of its members (1913: 29). He saw that the health of the soci al body depends on unity: public enlightenment leads to the union of understanding and will in the social body: the parts are made to work exactly together, and the whole is raised to its highest power (1913: 34). As we see, this model demands that we understand ‘the whole’ as more than its mere parts. It is not just the parts that need to function, but they need to function in their own nature which is determined by ‘the whole’ (e.g. the organism or social body). While structural functionalism sees an ordered society as a functional society, Rousseau’s model can recognise that while society might like to appear ordered, such order could be a mask of disorder. For example, he writes: So long as government and law provide for the security and well-being of men in their common life, the arts, literature and the sciences, less despotic though perhaps more powerful, fling garlands of flowers over the chains which weigh them down. They stifle in mens breasts that sense of original liberty, for which they seem to have been born (1913: 130-131). As such, the appearance of order is covering over disorder: What happiness would it be for those who live among us, if our external appearance were always a true mirror of ourShow MoreRelatedEssay on Understanding Change15189 Words   |  61 Pagescompetitive advantage 3 39 73 11 1 147 CHAPTER 1 Perspectives on change 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Perspectives on change 1.2.1 Modernity, progress, and change 1.2.2 Pathways to change 1.3 Structural-functional change: changing structures and functions 1.3.1 An organization is a complex whole 1.3.2 Structural theory 1.4 Multiple constituencies: change by negotiation 1.4.1 Stakeholder interests 1.5 Organizational Development: the humanistic approach to change 1.5.1 Intervention strategies at the individualRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesOrganizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride through the developments of one of the great enigmas of our time – How should we understand the organization? Jan Ole Similà ¤, Assistant Professor, Nord-Trà ¸ndelag University College, Norway I really enjoyed this new text and I am sure my students will enjoy it, too. It combines rigorous theoretical argument with application and consideration of how managment practice is formed and shaped by ideas and concepts. The authors have brought their wealth of experience

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Importance Of An Inclusive Practice For Early...

An inclusive practice is an important aspect to early childhood centers but can often be hard to achieve due to factors such as funding and limited resources. As well determining how inclusive a center is and how to best support challenges center face in becoming more inclusive can be difficult. Through the use of tools like the SpeciaLink Early Childhood: Inclusion Quality Scale early childhood educators can systematically and careful rate their inclusion levels and build plans to address concerns or areas for improvement. After completing the SpeciaLink Early Childhood: Inclusion Quality Scale in collaboration with an early childhood education center, strengths and areas for improvement became evident. Table 1 shows the centers strong†¦show more content†¦An increase in professional development opportunities was suggested for this centre as the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for the College of Early Childhood Educations requires educators to be current in their professional knowledge regarding child development and pedagogy (CECE, 2011). Well, we believe that having each staff member attend at least one professional development conference a year is a goal the center should strive for over the next few years, we understand that due to funding this goal may not be attainable within a year. Therefore, we developed an in-house professional development program. This program increases the availability of professional development opportunities by providing monthly in-house professional development workshops. These workshops will be achieved through the educator’s reflecting and collaboratively choosing topics or areas of interest. Each educator will select one of these topics to research and present to the other educators. This professional development program is supported by research that suggests educators should attend frequent opportunities to increase their knowledge of inclusion (Halfon Friendly, 2013). In addition, Bennett and Wynne (2006) note that it is through continual professional development that educators are gain the knowledge and skillsShow MoreRelatedThe Purpose Of The Study Was To Examine The Quality Of1200 Words   |  5 Pagesof the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. There was two focuses in the study. The first, was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of the structure and instruction. This includes book materials, print and writing materials. The other focus was to examine the interrelationship among teacher and classroom factors and quality of the structural literacy of the literacy environment. The importance of the structural and instructuralRead MoreEffects Of Obesity On Children s Children926 Words   |  4 Pagescharacterized by an excess amount of body fat (â€Å"Obesity in Children,† 2016). In the United States, obesity in children has become an epidemic that continues to increase at an astronomical rate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), showed obesity among Hispanic children was 22.4% in 2011-2012 (â€Å"Childhood Obesity Facts,† 2015). According to a recent report conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Hispanic children are at a heightened risk for obesity and comorbiditiesRead MoreThis Chapter Will Provide The Theoretical Framework For1281 Words   |  6 Pagesthe theoretical framework for training teachers for family engagement followed by a current and comprehensive literature review of: (1) Importance of family engagement, (2) Family engagement and educational equity, (3) Current state of teacher preparation for family engagement, (4) Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards family engagement, and (5) Best practices for teacher preparation. Following the literature review, the summary at the end of the chapter will propose the need for the study andRead MoreThe Importance of Play-Based Activities in Childrens Learning995 Words   |  4 Pagesso many things I did not know about them and I was perplexed just by handling one crying child. This booklet is created for early year’s practitioners that are just starting and it is aimed to provide practitioners about children, early year’s documents and play. As an early years’ practitioner, there is much information that is useful to know. For example, the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) framework is a framework that all settings in the United Kingdom (UK) have to provide for childrenRead MoreImproving Student Participation Is A Matter Of Importance1543 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: In a classroom we come across student diversity in terms of ability, ethnicity and learning needs. Ensuring student participation is a matter of importance, since children are at times deprived of equal right to use inclusive education from early childhood through to adulthood. Inclusive education means eliminating the distinction between special and regular education and giving equal opportunities despite their level of disability. It implies that providing educational facilitiesRead MoreMinimum Requirement : Infant / Toddler Child Development Associate ( Cda )983 Words   |  4 PagesToddler Teacher. Minimum requirement: Infant/Toddler Child Development Associate (CDA). Then on to complete 15 credits, 30 credits, 45 credits up to an Associate or Bachelor Degree in Early Childhood Education or a related field. Two years of experience working with young children. Excellent interpersonal skills, flexible hours, and basic computer skills required. Ability to: complete basic paperwork, respond to emergency situations, analyze and solve problems, move and play with small children.Read MorePersonal Narrative Of A Teacher1131 Words   |  5 PagesI had to write many letters to get Lucy the services she needed. Lucy is an important reason why I decided to go back to school. My role of the teacher in the classroom can make that learning moment special. Having qualified teachers in early childhood centers and elementary classrooms that are knowledgeable and conscious of how children develop is important part of a good education. As a teacher I want be an excellent example of high values and am a worthy role model for children. I believe myRead MoreThe Writing Of The Major Of Education Essay2035 Words   |  9 Pagesexperimental. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, my first journal, is a technical journal that has been around for over twenty years. A technical reading is characterized by the word usage, the content, and the level of professionalism. The editor is Laura justice. It covers issues of interest to early childhood development, theory, and educational practice. Some of the topics covered but not limited to are children’s social, emotional, cognitive behavior, and motor development applied to early childhoodRead MoreWhat Are The Goals Of Early Head Start?1712 Words   |  7 Pagesnfant to Age Five Child Care What are the goals of Early Head Start? The goals or priorities of this is to provide safe and developmentally enriching caregiving. To support parent, mother and father, in the role as primary caregivers. The teaching of the children, and family in meeting personal goals. Being able to successfully achieve self sufficiency across a wide variety of domains. Communities being mobilized to provide proper resources and environment that is necessary. But also, to ensureRead MoreInfant Of Age Five Child Care1661 Words   |  7 PagesInfant to Age Five Child Care What are the goals of Early Head Start? The goals or priorities of this is to provide safe and developmentally enriching caregiving. To support parent, mother and father, in the role as primary caregivers. The teaching of the children, and family in meeting personal goals. Being able to successfully achieve self sufficiency across a wide variety of domains. Communities being mobilized to provide proper resources and environment that is necessary. But also, to ensure

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Roll of Communication in Management Free Essays

Communication is the process of transmitting information and meaning. It is important for managers to develop their communication skills, because it is one major skills needed by managers. The management roles, which are interpersonal, informational, and decisional and the management functions, which are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling all require communication. We will write a custom essay sample on Roll of Communication in Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are many types of communication. 1. vertical communication. The definition of vertical communication is the flow of information both downward and upward through the organizational chain of command. Some also refer to it as formal communication. Downward communication kind of speaks for itself; top-level management produces decisions that are communicated down to tell employees how to perform their job. 2. upward communication. This is when employees send a message threw the chain of command, to the managers. This type of communication is very good for employees because they feel they are being noticed in the organization. Managers also benefit from this because they learn more about the organization. 3. horizontal communication. Horizontal communication is defined as the flow of information between colleagues and peers. Although it is a form of formal communication, it does not follow a chain of command. Horizontal communication happens when persons of equal rank, if you will, communicate to each other. 4. grapevine communication. It is defined as the flow of information in any direction throughout the organization. This is a form of informal communication. This can flow in any direction, at anytime. Rumors get spread this way. Managers can correct situations by sending correct information down the chain of command. The next term I would like to define and describe is the communication process. The communication process consists of a sender who encodes a message and transmits it through a channel to a receiver who decodes it and may give feedback. There are four steps in this process. One, the sender encodes the message and selects the transmission channel. Two, the message is transmitted through a channel. Three, the receiver decodes the message and decides if feedback is needed. Four, feedback, response, or new message may be transmitted through a channel. In defining the first one that is, the sender encodes the message and selects the channel, we must define the different parts of that phrase. Encoding is defined as the sender’s process of putting the message into a form that the receiver will understand. When selecting a channel there are three primary communication channels, which are oral, nonverbal, and written. The sender should choose the most appropriate one to warrant the needs of the situation. The second step in the communication process is, the sender transmits the message. After the sender has encoded the message, and selected a channel it is transmitted to the receiver. There are many barriers one being noise. This can confuse the receiver and he or she may not be able to understand it correctly. The third step in the communication process is, the receiver decodes the message and decides if feedback is needed. Decoding is defined as the receiver’s process of translating the message into a meaningful form. The receiver decides if there is something needed in return, such as feedback, a response, or a new message. There are many barriers to mess up this step. Some of these are trust, credibility, not listening, and emotional barriers. The forth step in the communication process is feedback: a response or a new message may be transmitted. The role of the receiver and sender can change at anytime during this communication process. There are three different channels to communicate through, oral, non-verbal, and written. Oral communication is verbal communication. You can communicate fast with a one on one oral communication. The amount of time it takes to communicate this way to many persons is where it lacks. Nonverbal communication is messages sent without words. Body language is included in nonverbal communication. Facial expressions and vocal quality are both parts of body language. Written communication provides a record and is usually more accurate then oral communication. Some examples of this are memos, letters, reports, and posters. I would now like to discuss and define feedback. Feedback is the process of verifying messages. You can use feedback to describe the fact that didn’t understand the sender’s message this is referred to as paraphrasing. The definition of paraphrasing is the process of having the receiver restate the message in his or her own words. Communications management focuses on the efficient and effective management of all ex-change relations between an organization and its stakeholders. Corporate communications as part of the communications management process is about presenting corporate policy, and creating a positive relationship with an organization’s environment. Promoting the relationships with all the relevant stakeholders acts as an extremely important tool to gain corporate success and competitive advantage How to cite Roll of Communication in Management, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Women Who Are Currently Experiencing Violence By Male Partner

Question: Discuss about the Women Who Are Currently Experiencing Violence By Male Partner. Answer: Background information: Mitchell has shared her horrible experience with her male partner during her live in period. She was subjected to physical and mental abuse on daily basis. She had to leave her house and the court has to consider her situation as her partner still threatening her. She is suffering from mental depression and has to join in the counseling classes. Record of contract: A social program has been arranged to point out the social condition of the women and Mitchell has represented her at the program. The initial contact has been made with Mitchell that day. After that day, four seating have been organized with her and each seating continued for three long hour. The horrible experience of Mitchell during that period and her urge to get rid of that situation influenced me a lot. She had overcome the trauma to certain extent but I think we need to raise our voice against the same and make a strong protest for the grief condition of the women in the modern Australia. Sufficient consideration and intervention of the court is required in this case. Court needs to peruse the documents submitted before it and has to consider the medical report and copy of complaints made by the victim in this case. Social History: Mitchell was born in Melbourne in the year 1984 and she was third child in her family. She came to New South Wales for work and she met Peter in the office. They both came closer to each other and started to live in together. It has been known from her that Peter was drug addict and his dose had been increased when he lost his job. It has been observed that Mitchell has to bear all the expenses and had to take care of all the domestic matters. Peter did not try for another job and he used to beat Mitchell during the drug inducement stage. During one of her interviews, it has been contended by Mitchell that her partner had attempted to intercourse with her against her will and in case of any objection, he beat her bitterly. She had made two police complaint and Peter was apologized for his activities. Mitchell had forgiven him due to love and affection. However, the situation has not changed yet rather the amount of torture was increased. It has further been observed that Mitchell had conceived during that period and she had to abort her child due to continuous pressure made by her partner and she had undergone into mental trauma and it was hard for her to lead her life with her partner. During that period, sudden death of her mother had dragged her towards the melancholic situation and that affected her mental state to many aspects. It has been contended by her that she has developed mental depression at that state and lost her job. She felt her as a lone and detached woman in the globe. When she understood that such violence would not be stopped, she had left her home, started to live separately, and joined counseling class. Education and work experience: Mitchell had a bright educational background and she had graduated from Victoria University in the year 2008. Her subject was applied computer science and she got a chance to go further with her studies. However, she got the job within that period and could not continue her studies. It has been learnt from her that she was in high demand of money for her family as her father died since her childhood. She was posted in the community management and she had to deal with the fiber optics technology. She had to shift to New South Wales for that job and started to live as a paying guest there. History of abuse: Mitchell states that she fell in love with Peter during her office days and Peter was her senior in the office. They started dating for some period and after that, she had shifted in a flat jointly with Peter. She was unknown about the addiction of Peter and found that after one week of her settlement with Peter. She had to burn the midnight oil for her official purpose and during that period, Peter caused disturbance to her. He frequently made demand for sex and Mitchell had to cooperate with his desires. However, it has been learnt from the interviews that Peter had lost his job after some time and Mitchell has to bear all the expenses. Peter had no intention to find another job for himself and he pressurized Mitchell to bear his addiction price. In case of any denial, he used to beat Mitchell and mentally torture her. Mitchell was depressed for all these occurrences and lost her job too. Her depression had been incremented after the sudden death of her mother in the year 2016. It has also been contended by her that she became pregnant in 2017, but she had to abort due to continuous mental and physical abuse by her partner. All these incidents had created great impact on her, she had undergone into mental depression, and her health condition was deteriorated day to day. Health: After being subjected to continuous mental and physical torture, the health condition of Mitchell was deteriorated and she had to admit to hospital for two times. She was suffering from mental depression and she felt her lonely. Further, sudden death of her mother and the incident of abortion weaken her mentally and she became disturbed. She used to share her experience with her mother and mother was her only support. Further, she could not concentrate in anything for all the violence she had to face by her partner. Financial condition: It has been observed that she and her partner both were working in a company. They have shifted in a large flat in the city on rent and both of them paid for their household works. However, suddenly Peter was terminated from his office and therefore, all the expenses come on the shoulder of Mitchell. She had to meet the official requirements and domestic requirements as well. She had to face serious financial trouble in that days and it was tough for her to meet all the requirements perfectly. She had to bear the cost of cocaine and in case of any denial; she had to bear violence from her partner. Peter used to treat her as house cleaner and a medium to fulfill all his demands. No minimum support she got from her partner and this dragged her to mental depression. Professional assessment: Considering all the interview sessions with Mitchell, it has been observed that she was subjected to acute mental and physical torture and she did not want to hide any fact from me. Her condition reflects the untold story of many Australian women who had to face violence from their male partner. Her story of depression shook me a lot and she should get justice. Her urge to recover all the depressions are quite motivated. However, all the reasonable actions should have to take against her partner and interference of the court is required in this case. Reflection part: I am quite enthusiastic about the human rights and considering the dark experience of Mitchell, certain ethical viewpoints have been come into my notice. I am quite motivated by the struggle of Mitchell. Her experiences had shaken me internally and I can relate me with her. It has been learnt from her that she had lost her father in her early days and she was on great demand of love. It has been observed that when she had been shifted to New South Wales for her job and there she met Peter. She wanted to found that love from Peter but she had to face adverse situation and acute violence from him. She had become mentally depressed and she did not get any medium that can give her peace. It has been observed that her partner had snatched all her fundamental rights away from her and she ought to have a fair ground to narrate all her experience before the court. Mitchell should have to get fair chance as all her human rights had been taken away and she was forced to abort her child. Her partner deteriorated her health condition due to continuous torture. However, she has able to overlap all the negative effects but she should be fairly adjudicated by the Court. There are certain ethical considerations engraved in the case. The condition of Mitchell should be dealt in the ground of justice and the court has to determine what is right and what is wrong by considering the ethical concepts in her case. Her case should be considered with the adherence of social justice and all the ethical perspectives should have to consider properly. Her rights should be preserved and she should get a fair trial regarding the same. References: Garca-Moreno, C., Zimmerman, C., Morris-Gehring, A., Heise, L., Amin, A., Abrahams, N., ... Watts, C. (2015). Addressing violence against women: a call to action.The Lancet,385(9978), 1685-1695. Guedes, A., Bott, S., Garcia-Moreno, C., Colombini, M. (2016). Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children.Global health action,9(1), 31516. Khalifeh, H., Moran, P., Borschmann, R., Dean, K., Hart, C., Hogg, J., ... Howard, L. M. (2015). Domestic and sexual violence against patients with severe mental illness.Psychological medicine,45(4), 875-886. Michau, L., Horn, J., Bank, A., Dutt, M., Zimmerman, C. (2015). Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice.The Lancet,385(9978), 1672-1684. Oram, S., Khalifeh, H., Howard, L. M. (2017). Violence against women and mental health.The Lancet Psychiatry,4(2), 159-170. Pahl, J. (Ed.). (2016).Private violence and public policy: The needs of battered women and the response of the public services. Routledge. Rees, S., Steel, Z., Creamer, M., Teesson, M., Bryant, R., McFarlane, A. C., ... Forbes, D. (2014). Onset of common mental disorders and suicidal behavior following women's first exposure to gender based violence: a retrospective, population-based study.BMC psychiatry,14(1), 312. Roberts, D., Chamberlain, P., Delfabbro, P. (2015). Women's experiences of the processes associated with the family court of Australia in the context of domestic violence: A thematic analysis.Psychiatry, Psychology and Law,22(4), 599-615. Vaughan, C., Murdolo, A., Murray, L., Davis, E., Chen, J., Block, K., ... Warr, D. (2015). ASPIRE: A multi-site community-based participatory research project to increase understanding of the dynamics of violence against immigrant and refugee women in Australia.BMC public health,15(1), 1283. Wong, J., Mellor, D. (2014). Intimate partner violence and womens health and wellbeing: Impacts, risk factors and responses.Contemporary nurse,46(2), 170-179.

Monday, November 25, 2019

The Best Health Care Jobs in California With No 4 Year Degree Required

The Best Health Care Jobs in California With No 4 Year Degree Required California is expected to have a pretty large shortage of health care workers by 2025. Many of these positions are a lower level that does not require a bachelor’s degree. So whether you’re looking to fall into the health care industry or you’re already firmly entrenched in it, Cali may be a great place for you to find a health care job, especially if you only have your associates degree.Here are some of the best jobs health care jobs in California for people without a bachelor’s degree. You can refer to the infographic for more information.1.  Diagnostic Medical Sonographer  2.  Registered Nurse3.  Medical Assistant4.  Medical Billing Specialist  5.  Pharmacy Technician  6.  Respiratory Therapist  7.  Surgical TechnologistSource: [sjvc.edu]

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Outline of Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans Assignment

Outline of Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans - Assignment Example A second wave of immigrants came during World War II in order to supply construction, farm and domestic labor under the â€Å"Bracero Program†. During the last quarter of the 20th century there was large scale immigration both legal and illegal from Mexico to the US due to Mexico’s severe economic problems. The first large scale Chinese immigration to America was in 1848 when the California Gold Rush led many to believe they could find their fortune and escape economic hardship especially in Canton province because of British dominance( Le 2012) They also came to Hawaii as contract workers in sugar plantations, and to continental US as merchants, gardeners, domestics, laundry workers, farmers and starting in 1865 as railroad workers. Public Policies In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo guaranteed Mexican Americans all the rights of citizens of the United States including free enjoyment of their liberty and property. However despite these promised protections they wer e largely dispossessed of their land by an Anglo run legal system that administered land holdings Kutty 2008) This caused a severe reduction in their economic status into the 20th century. In addition to this economic discrimination, Mexican Americans also suffered racial and legal prejudice with civic segregation similar to the blacks in various areas until the 1950s and 1970s. Even the US Congress expressed the view that Mexicans were racially inferior. During the Great Depression, because of welfare burdens the federal government pursued a policy of forced repatriation of Mexican Americans to Mexico. The public policies affecting Chinese Americans were the Naturalization Act of 1870 restricting all immigration into the US to white persons and persons of African descent and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ( thinkquest). The former act made Chinese ineligible for citizenship until 1943 and was the first significant bar on free immigration in America’s history. The latter a ct was to prevent an excess of cheap labor Ways Policies Affected Immigration Success Not only were Mexicans deprived of their property after the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty, but had to pay discriminating taxes as well( Kutty Policy) For example in California they were subject to the Foreign Miners License Tax which was enforced only against the non Europeans. This policy was a success in its’ unstated goal of forcing 2/3 of the Mexican miners to return home. Also the wealth of Mexican Americans in New Mexico was depleted by usury laws at excessive rates when Mexicans tried to buy back the land and in Texas violent sabotage of their business interests prevailed. Segregation into inferior housing, education, employment and civic services has contributed to stereotyping by white society. The repatriation policies during the Great Depression forced about 1/3 of Mexican Americans to leave the US mostly because of violence, harassment and diminished opportunities. The Naturalization Act of 1870 arose out of resentment against the frugal, hard working, low waged Chinese Americans

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Slavery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Slavery - Essay Example The story of Equiano demonstrates the inhumane situation of the slaves and the acceptance by slaves the white racial theories. In the middle of the XVII England has been shaken by the political crisis because of Oliver Cromwell revolution. The Putney Debates of 1647 revealed the English Revolution as an abolishment movement, a 1659 Parliamentary debate on slavery and the â€Å"free-born Englishman†, held on the eve of the restoration of Charles II and the Stuart monarchy, marked a counterrevolutionary reversal (Linebaugh, 132). The Putney Debates between Thomas Rainborough and Henry Ireton raised the questions of the struggle for the commons and struggle against slavery. Domestic wars and conflicts led to appearance of the new slavery forms in England: white slaves in Barbados, slavery in West Africa, Jamaica. Irish radicals and foes were sent by Oliver Cromwell to the Barbados, in the 1649 British merchants ordered the construction of a trading fort on the Gold Coast. The ski n color wasn’t decisive for the slavery - it was a matter of the profit for the merchants and elites. And Equiano in his autobiography gave us great example when even in the mid of the XVIII century there was an incident during the way through the ocean, when â€Å"one white man in particular I saw, when we were permitted to be on deck, flogged so unmercifully with a large rope near the foremast, that he died in consequence of it: and they tossed him over the side as they would have done a brute† (Equiano, 423). The interracial co-operations were not solitary: for example, Africans and Irish conspired together in plots of 1675, 1686, 1692 and alliance between slaves and servants was what planters feared most of all (Linebaugh, 126). The slavery began to acquire the racial shade in the 1670s. The resistance of plantation workers exploded in 1675-1676 in Virginia. There were two uprisings. The first one began in 1675 and was a war for land by freedmen and small farmers a gainst Indians and a portion of the colonial ruling class in Virginia. The second one was a war against slavery, waged by servants and slaves. After rebellion the planters charged the governor with restraining â€Å"any inhumane severity which by ill masters or overseers may be used toward Christian servants† (Linebaugh, 137). And the result of this rebellion was legislation in 1682 that provided â€Å"all servants not being Christians, being imported into this country by shipping† should be servants for twelve years, instead European servants – for five years. Of course, this legislation was directed toward the Africans. The defeats of the servants and slaves that was detailed represented in the â€Å"The Many-Headed Hydra†, became the reason why the elites, nobles, â€Å"whites† began to establishing new rules that had aim to discriminate the rebels and to justify himself. From the 1670s legislation was enacted to protect and Christians, â€Å"w hite† people (Linebaugh, 139). Rulers from the England, merchants and planters dispossessed tens of thousands more in Ireland, Barbados, West Africa and Virginia and made the slavery of Atlantic capitalism (Linebaugh, 141). Indeed, the masses of cheep labour in the America and Europe created the possibility to very fast enrichments. Slaves were very good investments. The people from the lowest classes had no wealth, they had no property. The capitalists wanted to control them,

Monday, November 18, 2019

Anything on a proposal arugment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Anything on a proposal arugment - Essay Example I consider this as a major social problem which must be taken care of in a serious way. This paper will follow the structure represented in Ramage's book and shall include the following: In general term, we can define child labour as a forced- work where children are put into and through which they get exploited in many ways. Children are forced to work in any place regardless of the suffering they meet. The problem of child labour is more in the developing countries like India and so on. We can say that the main cause for child labour is poverty, but it is not only this because we can see that innumerable poor children are getting educated. So, the responsibility goes to the family also. Many out there from the poor background are not aware of the problem at all. They do not know the damage it brings to the future of their children. Engaging children for work is a serious offence, but no one seems to take notice of it. Child labour spoils the educational growth of the child and always keep him out of the fast-developing and competitive society. A child labour does not face the world in a proper way; he will not develop a proper character or behavior. Here is an est imation of child labourers in the year 2002 by International Labour Organisation. According to it of about 246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labour, of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is hazardous to their safety, physical or mental health, and moral development. Moreover, some 8.4 million children were engaged in so-called 'unconditional' worst forms of child labor, which include forced and bonded labor, the use of children in armed conflict, trafficking in children and commercial sexual exploitation. We cannot say that the problem of child labour has been decreased totally. This is a continuing problem which has been not properly considered by the government authorities. Effective measures have to be taken to eliminate child labour. According to the "Roots of Child Labor" in UNICEF's 1997 State of the World's Children Report, the parents of child labourers are often unemployed or underemployed, desperate for secure employment and income. Yet, it is their children - more powerless and paid less - who are offered the jobs. In other words, says UNICEF, children are employed because they are easier to exploit. With this, let us move on to the next part. A SOLUTION TO ELIMINATE CHILD LABOUR Though there are many solutions to overcome this problem, in my opinion it is rightly through providing proper education children can be taken out of child labour. It is not just giving education; my stress would be on making it free for the desperate and deserving section of people. Government should come forward to make it reach throughout the country. Children must be able to receive proper education and the government should also concentrate on providing some help for the family concerned for their survival. In this way, there will not be any problem from the parents' side for the children. If this can be implemented everywhere the risk of child labour will slowly perish and the future of these children can be saved. CONCLUSION In my conclusion, I would like to justify the mentioned solution as an

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Minimum Wage Debate in the US

Minimum Wage Debate in the US Minimum wage has been a subject of sustained and polarizing debate in the realm of U.S. labor economics right from the time the Department of Labor came into existence in 1913 (Neumark, Salas Wascher, 2014). The debate is older than the official federal minimum wage legislation, which came into force in 1938. Nonetheless, despite the massive attention this subject has elicited over this lengthy period, a consensus concerning the effect of minimum wage on employment is not in the vicinity. Experts have argued plausibly both in favor of and against minimum wage laws. Even so, this paper seeks to add its voice to this debate by arguing that minimum wage laws are necessary because they speed up economic recovery after recessions, safeguard workers from exploitation, and attempt to bridge the income inequality crisis the country is presently witnessing. Annotated Bibliography Meer, J., West, J. (2015). Effects of the minimum wage on employment dynamics. Journal of Human Resources. Retrieved from http://people.tamu.edu/~jmeer/Meer_West_Minimum_Wage.pdf In this journal article, the authors advance a familiar argument in the field of labor economics. In their view, an increase in minimum wage or the existence of laws that specify a particular minimum wage serves to reduce employment growth over a lengthy period. Apparently, the reason most studies that seek to establish a relationship between minimum wage and employment dynamics fail to do so due to the methods they employ. An example is the use of state-specific time trends (p. 1). Thus, the authors utilize state panel administrative employment data to arrive at their finding. Reportedly, the finding is in agreement with a number of other empirical findings. This journal article does not seem to agree with the position outlined in the thesis statement. However, a source, it will help in the development of the argument by bringing in the perspective of those opposed to minimum wages or their increase. A comprehensive and fully developed argument is one that pays attention to the opposing sides argument. This article and others that make similar arguments will serve to create this balance. Neumark, D., Salas, J. I., Wascher, W. (2014). Revisiting the minimum wage-employment debate: Throwing out the baby with the bathwater? ILR Review, 67(3 suppl), 608-648. This article revisits the minimum wage employment debate, apparently after a period of the authors abstinence from this area of focus for some time. According to the article, the minimum wage debate is age old, but in recent times, emergent literature is increasingly propagating the idea that new research in this area is inaccurate. The reason behind such claims is that the new research employs methods that critics say do not consider spatial heterogeneity. The article explores the research designs more closely and concludes that indeed, there is a cause for concern with these new researches. The research designs they employ are faulty. Through such designs, the studies indicate that minimum wage has not interfered with employment noticeably. In contrast, a link exists between minimum wages and employment rates. This article achieves its purpose by considering a number of other studies in the minimum wage debate. The studies it examines are those that claim to find no significant relationship between minimum wage and employment and those that criticize such studies. Insofar as the minimum wage debate is concerned, this article is informative due to fact that it gives the debate a historical context that many article fail to capture. It explains when and how the debate started as well as how it has developed over the years. Despite not taking a clear stand on whether minimum is bad or good, it is a great resource for the upcoming paper due to its informative nature. Orrenius, P. M., Zavodny, M. (2008). The effect of minimum wages on immigrants employment and earnings. ILR Review, 61(4), 544-563. In this article, the relationship between minimum wage laws are examined with the intent of determining the nature of impact such laws have on minimum wage earners. In contrast to natives, immigrants, who constitute the majority of minimum wage earners, are likely to be impacted more by minimum wage laws. Immigrants are often less educated, possess limited English language skills, and less connected socially. Although no direct indications of adverse effects of minimum wage laws on employment among minimum wage earners were established, there is a possibility that such laws influenced the settlement decisions of some immigrants. Trends seem to indicate that they preferred states in which the minimum wage bar was not high. In this article, the minimum wage debate is approached from a new perspective, the perspective of the minimum wage earner. Evidence suggests that although many may assume that minimum wage earners would rush to high minimum wage states, they actually tend to prefer low minimum wage states. The rationale behind this kind of disharmony is that when the minimum wage is high, employers tend to seek experience or higher levels of education. Based on what the article was investigating, immigrants will obviously shy away from such states. Thus, since this whole debate is about minimum wage, the article does well to approach it from the perspective of those groups that fall in the category of minimum wage earners. In other words, it is possible to determine how they feel about the whole issue. This unique approach will help diversify the argument. Pollin, R., Wicks-Lim, J. (2016). A $15 US minimum wage: How the fast-food industry could adjust without shedding jobs. Journal of Economic Issues, 50(3), 716-744. In this article, the possibility of adjusting from the current minimum wage to a minimum wage of $15 per hour without reducing the labor force is examined with fast food restaurants in mind. Apparently, fast food restaurants are the leading employers of minimum wage earners and those who earn below minimum wage. Thus, if they can adjust from the current minimum wage of $7.25 to $15 hourly, then any other employer can. This scenario is projected over a 4-year period with a two-step increment. It is achievable through turnover reductions, trend increases in sales growth, and modest annual price increases over the four-year period (p. 717). And fast food restaurants will not need to lower their profits to make the adjustment. The article is also unique in its approach to the debate. It does not preoccupy itself with whether the increase of minimum wage is bad or good. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate through a breakdown of relevant figures that it is possible for fast food restaurants to accommodate a minimum wage of $15 per hour without eating into their profits. The authors make an effort to be quite thorough in their analysis as well as breakdowns. The practical nature in which tackle this issue proves beyond doubt that a higher minimum wage is possible in America and stands in support of the argument of this project. Highly paid employees are prone to working hard and more effectively. Watanabe, M. (2013). Minimum wage, public investment, economic growth. Theoretical Economics Letters, 3(05), 288. In this article, the author argues in favor of minimum wage increases citing poverty reduction, and reasonable living as its direct outcomes. Despite there being divergent views on the same, through a two-period overlapping generation model, (p. 288) the author endeavors to show that the negativities associated with minimum wage increment can be countered with increased productivity among workers. Moreover, the study establishes that minimum wage increases have a positive on economic growth. This article also argues in favor of the position that is outlined in the thesis statement. This means it will in the development of a strong argument to show that despite the widespread claims that minimum wage increment has negative effects, there is actually a lot of good it can help achieve. The level of language and engagement with the technical economics in this article demonstrates the authors expertise in this field. As a consequence, this article gives an authoritative argument backed by facts and adequate examples. This will serve as a very important resource during the actual writing of the final paper. References Meer, J., West, J. (2015). Effects of the minimum wage on employment dynamics. Journal of Human Resources. Retrieved from http://people.tamu.edu/~jmeer/Meer_West_Minimum_Wage.pdf Neumark, D., Salas, J. I., Wascher, W. (2014). Revisiting the minimum wage-employment debate: Throwing out the baby with the bathwater? ILR Review, 67(3 suppl), 608-648. Orrenius, P. M., Zavodny, M. (2008). The effect of minimum wages on immigrants employment and earnings. ILR Review, 61(4), 544-563. Pollin, R., Wicks-Lim, J. (2016). A $15 US minimum wage: How the fast-food industry could adjust without shedding jobs. Journal of Economic Issues, 50(3), 716-744. Watanabe, M. (2013). Minimum wage, public investment, economic growth. Theoretical Economics Letters, 3(05), 288.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, and the P.A.N.D.A.S. Conne :: Biology Essays Research Papers

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, and the P.A.N.D.A.S. Connection As someone who's been plagued by an Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder since childhood, I can say it seems hopeless at times. For so long a sufferer feels that what they have isn't a legitimate ailment and that he is alone in his battle. Thankfully, in recent years, more and more research is being done on Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, and more answers are being found. Obsessive Compulsive Disorders are the fourth most common psychiatric diagnosis. Sometimes the onset of symptoms is sudden, but more often than not it is a gradual progression. Precipitating events that could spur the onset of an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can include emotional stress (domestic or job-related), increased levels of responsibility, health problems, and bereavement. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, "the essential features of an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder are recurrent obsession or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming (i.e.: they take more than an hour per day) or cause marked distress or significant impairment. At some point during the course of the disorder, the person has recognized the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. It's important to note that this is difficult concerning children because children tend to not realize that their compulsions are excessive or unreaso nable while adults do ((1) .). People develop compulsions by trying to ignore thoughts or impulses, or by trying to neutralize them with other thoughts or actions. Compulsions are mental acts, and include repeating words, ordering things, hand washing, and various other motions. The goal of these compulsions is to prevent or reduce anxiety. Because Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI's) such as Prozac, Luvox, Zoloft, and Paxil are effective in controlling Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, it's believed that serotonin regulation is a part of the cause of OCD. Serotonin is a very important chemical messenger in the brain, and plays a role in a person's mood, aggression, impulse control, sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pain. Brain imaging studies have depicted various abnormalities in parts of the brains of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder sufferers. These parts include the caudate nucleus, the basil ganglia, the thalamus, orbital cortex, and cingulated gyrus. Disorders that have the obsessive compulsive symptoms of intrusive, repetitive behaviors are often called OC Spectrum Disorders. Amongst these include Trichotillomania, Monosyruptomatic Hypochondriasis, Body Dismorphic Disorder, and some eating disorders.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Different Marriage or Wedding Practices in Countries Essay

I. Africa: 1. In some African tribes, the bride and groom have their wrists tied together with cloth or braided grass to represent their marriage. 2. To honor their ancestors, some Africans pour Holy water, or alcohol, onto the ground as prayers are recited to the ancestral spirits. 3. The bride wears a veil made of plaited hair which represents reserve. 4. The people present wear traditional regional costumes. 5. The couple jumps above a brush covered with flowers, which symbolizes the starting of domestic life. 6. The Kola nut is most often used for medicinal purposes in Africa. It is also essential in most African weddings. The Kola nut symbolizes the couple’s willingness to always help heal each other. In Nigeria, the ceremony is not complete until a kola nut is shared between the couple and their parents. II. Arabia: 1. Traditionally, marriage was between paternal first cousins or other patrilineally related kin. 2. It was customary for potential spouses not to meet before the wedding night, and marriages had to be arranged by fathers, mothers, and other relatives. These practices are changing slowly and unevenly, but the tendency is toward fewer close-cousin marriages and for the couple to communicate with each other before the wedding. 3. The bride wears an elaborate veil and gets her hands and feet decorated with a drawing made with alhea (henna). 4. During the reception, men and women stay separated. 5. Men are allowed to have four wives at a time as long as they can treat them equally, but polygyny is uncommon in most of the population. Marriage is considered a necessary part of life, and almost all adults marry III. Caribe and Burmuda: 1. The bride and groom show off their finest clothes for the entire village. 2. There’s no need for a best man at an Island wedding. 3. A typical wedding feast features curried goat and spicy chicken jerky 4. The traditional wedding cake is a â€Å"Black Cake† with the recipe handed down from mother to daughter for many generations. The cake is traditionally served with a Hard Rum Sauce and all of the dried fruits are soaked in rum in a crock pot for anywhere from two weeks to one year. 5. Calypso music is played. 6. In the Bermudas people plant a tree for prosperity. IV. China: 1. Auspicious days are subject to interpretation by fortune tellers that perform the analysis based on one’s birth date (day and hour) after consultation with the Chinese almanac. It is said to be the oldest continuous publication known. 2. In the Chinese community it is considered bad form if an individual consults the almanac and performs a self analysis. That is why a fortune teller or Fung Suey [Feng Shui] expert is consulted. 3. The 15 day period from the middle to the end of the seventh lunar month is considered inauspicious because that is time of the Hungry Ghost Festival when the gates of Hell are opened and the lost spirits are allowed to wander the earth. They should not be invited to the wedding! 4. Decorations and gift wrappings are red as this color (and gold too) symbolizes happiness and wealth. 5. There are always rockets acting as protection against bad spirits. 6. The bride changes her dress three times during the wedding ceremony. V. England: 1. The familiar tradition of a flower girl throwing rose petals as she passes down the aisle before the bride is a reminder of days gone by when the bride walked to the church with her maids in waiting. Leading the procession was always a young girl throwing flower petals along the lane, so the bride’s path through life would be happy and laden with flowers. 2. The couple walks toward the church with their wedding procession over a path of orange blossoms. 3. Something Old – Something New – Something Borrowed – Something Blue†¦And a Silver Sixpence in Her Shoe! This good-luck saying that originated many years ago in the Victorian era. 4. Most of the brides wear a horseshoe on one of their arms decorated with lace as an amulet. 5. The fruit cake is covered with marzipan. The upper section (baptism tart) is kept until the first child is born. VI. France: 1. A traditional French custom for the groom to call on his future bride at her home on the morning of their wedding. 2. In a church filled with incense and flowers, the couple stands beneath a silk canopy. A predecessor of the veil, a square of silk fabric, â€Å"carre'† is held over the head of the bride and groom as the couple received the priest’s final blessing. They were designed to protect the couple from descending malice. The same veil is used for the baptism of their new born child. 3. The bridal portion is put in the â€Å"nuptial wardrobe,† hand engraved with symbols of health and prosperity. 4. The couple drinks from the traditional wedding cup. 5. All decorations are white, and laurel leaves are spread out of the church when the nuptial couple departs. 6. On the wedding night, pots and pans are drummed to disturb the couple. The groom invites jokers in and some refreshments are offered. VII. Germany: 1. During the engagement period both the bride and groom wear a ring on their left hand. After the wedding they wear the wedding ring on their right hand. Usually the rings are gold with no diamonds. 2. Germany brides wear either very short trains or usually none at all attached to their wedding dress. If veils are worn they are of fingertip length and typically never worn over the face 3. The groom usually wears a black suit or a smoking jacket (dinner jacket) 4. Some weeks before the wedding the groom and his male friends go to a Kneipe (pub) to drink and have fun for his last time as a single man. 5. Before a church wedding the bride and groom will have been married in the Standesamt (Registry Office) by a registrar which is most often in the Rathaus (town hall). A witness is needed for the bride and also for the groom. 6. At a party on the evening before the wedding plates and dishes are smashed to scare off evil spirits. Only china can be used. Anything else would bring bad luck. The bride and groom have to clean up everything. This is to indicate that they can work together. 7. Together, the bride and groom will enter the church and walk down the aisle. Because it is not legal to have only a church ceremony, the couple will have already been legally married by a Standesbeamte. 8. As the couple walks to the wedding car, fir boughs are laid along the path to pave their first newlywed steps with fresh greenery to symbolize hope, luck and fertility. 9. On the day of the wedding, the guests go to couple’s house. VIII. Greece: 1. Before the wedding, tradition in Greece is to have your â€Å"Bed† made before groom actually sleep in it with the new spouse. During this ceremony, the bed is â€Å"made† with hand-knit linens and then adorned with Koufetta – almond candies, rose petals and, of course, money from friends and family for good luck. 2. When attending a Greek wedding, guests might wear a small â€Å"Eye† to ward off evil and keep the Bride and Groom protected from bad luck. 3. Greek Brides often put a lump of sugar in their glove for a â€Å"sweet† marriage. 4. Nowadays, after the wedding ceremony, guests are offered bombonieres. These delightful gifts of sugar-coated almonds are wrapped in net and attached to a small memento of your wedding. 5. Another hallmark of modern weddings is the wild and deafening loud concerto of automobile horns before and after a wedding ceremony. 6. In the reception a dance with handkerchiefs (Kaslamantiano) is enjoyed by all while stuf fed grape leaves, lamb skewers, and wine are served. 7. During the ceremony the groom is asked to honor the bride and she slightly touches him to put emphasis. IX. Italy: 1. A traditional Italian proposal begins with a romantic serenade. 2. Brides to be and their families gathered a â€Å"dote† or dowry of household goods and clothing in hope or marriage chests. This was often augmented with money or property. 3. In southern Italy, wild bachelor parties are uncommon as are raucous gatherings for the ladies. 4. Italian bride wears a white gown and veil. The white dress symbolizes purity while the veil, sometimes torn for luck, prevents the groom from clearly seeing the face of his intended before the ceremony, and thereby bringing bad luck upon the couple. 5. Almonds covered with caramel symbolize the joys and sadness of marriage. Sometimes the couple is pelted with sugared almonds. 6. In the reception, everyone enjoys the traditional dance called the â€Å"Tarantella.† X. Japan: 1. Sake Ceremony – known as one of the oldest traditional Japanese wedding customs, san-san-kudo, or sharing of sake is still performed today. 2. In Japan, brides may wear a colorful silk kimono or a shiromuku, a formal gown passed down over the ages and still used today as traditional bridal dresses. Some Japanese brides choose to wear a modern wedding gown. 3. The bride wears an elaborate white silk dress, various adornments, and a special wig. 4. In the reception there’s a dedication and some speeches, and the honored guests tell stories about the couple. 5. Kiogashi (colored sweets with flower shape), indicate that this is also a party. 6. Red is the funny and lucky color. XI. Korea: 1. In Korea, the marriage between a man and woman represents the joining of two families, rather than the joining of two individuals. 2. Before a Korean bride may be married, she must take part in the traditional Introduction ceremony, where she is accepted into the groom’s family. In a private ceremony, the groom’s family welcomes the bride. 3. The groom’s father may throw red dates at his daughter-in-law to bring her luck in fertility. 4. On the eve of the wedding (hum), the groom, bride, and her friends gather at the bride’s house. The groom’s friends arrive later, shouting and carrying lanterns to light the way and the bride’s things/dowry. Before entering they demand to be paid. When the payment of food and song is agreed upon, they enter and join with the others to celebrate. 5. Traditionally, a chest of gifts for the bride’s family was brought by the groom’s family. 6. The bride wears a multicolored silk dress with white sleeves and a black silk crown and she is made up with red points on her cheeks to scare away bad spirits. XII. Scotland: 1. Usually about a week before the ceremony the mother of the bride will hold a â€Å"show of presents† for her daughter. This corresponds to the bridal shower in other cultures. A slightly more raunchy tradition is the groom’s stag party. 2. The modern Scottish bride will wear a traditional or contemporary white wedding gown, while the groom dresses in traditional Highland kilt, kilt jacket and sporran. 3. The couple is either bag piped down the isle or traditional Gaelic hymns are played as they walk to the altar. The Highland Wedding is played at virtually all Scottish weddings. 4. Once at the altar the couple may choose to recite their vows in ancient Gaelic or to recite them in modern English. Following the vows the groom often pins a strip of his clan’s tartan colors to the bride’s wedding dress to signify that she is now a member of his clan. 5. Following the ceremony the bride and groom and all their honored guests head to a private home or to a restaurant for a lavish reception feast. At the typical Scottish reception you can count on the bride and groom being â€Å"piped† to the table of honor, where the bride will cut the first slice of wedding cake using a dirk (a long-bladed knife) that is provided to her by the piper. As the bride slices the first piece of wedding cake, custom dictates that her hand is guided by the hand of her new husband. 6. The wedding reception is filled with music, signing, much drinking and toasting to the health and happiness of the new couple. The celebrations can go on into the wee hours of the morning. 7. One custom that hasn’t changed for more than 700 years is the custom of the groom carrying his new bride over the threshold of their new home together. XIII. The Netherlands: 1. Dutch people are free to choose their spouses. The common basis for marriage is most often love. This does not mean that people marry independently of the constraints of class, ethnicity, and religion. 2. The choice of a partner is often class-based. Monogamy is the only marriage form allowed. 3. Many Dutch couples live in a consensual arrangement. Same-sex couples can marry and have the same rights as heterosexual couples. 4. A civil wedding ceremony, usually conducted in the town hall, is required in Holland to give marriage legality; so many couples have both a religious and civil ceremony on the same day. 5. The wedding ceremony is usually followed by a series of celebrations consisting of a reception, a formal dinner and a party, and it is common practice for family and friends to be invited to either all or just part of the celebrations, depending on their closeness to the couple. XIV. Russia: 1. The betrothal is a ceremony performed with the rites of the Eastern Church, and takes place eight days before the marriage. 2. During the interval between betrothal and marriage the bride’s girl friends endeavor to amuse her and keep up her spirits (for she is supposed to be in a state of lamentation and grief) by singing to her, and their songs tell of the happiness of married life. 3. On the day before the wedding they conduct her to the bath, where much time is spent in dressing her hair, while she listens to their songs. 4. Both bride and bridegroom receive a solemn blessing from their parents before leaving their houses, and even the wedding garments are blessed by the priest. 5. After the dedication, cups are thrown to the floor. Their breaking means happiness. 6. The bride and groom usually tie a doll to the wedding car or carriage if they wish their first child to be a girl, and a teddy bear if they want a boy. XV. Hawaiian: 1. The bride wears a long, white formal version of the muumuu called a ‘holoku. 2. Instead of a veil, a woven garland of island flowers, ‘haku lei’ is worn around her head. 3. The bride’s bouquet may consist of white orchid sprays. 4. The groom wears a long sleeve white shirt and white pants. A long red or colored sash is worn wrapped about his waist. A lei of maile and ilima flowers adorn his neck. 5. Hawaiian wedding bands bearing the couple’s name in Hawaiian are often exchanged. The name ‘kuuipo’ meaning sweetheart, is favorite choice for the bride. XVI. Philippines: 1. During the reception couples practice the Filipino wedding custom of releasing a pair of doves to symbolize a loving and harmonious marriage. 2. During the reception the wedding cake is sliced. 3. Throwing rice confetti at the newlyweds will bring them prosperity all their life. 4. The groom must arrive before the bride at the church to avoid bad luck. 5. Dropping the wedding ring, the veil or the arrhae during the ceremony spells unhappiness for the couple. 6. Bride should not try on her wedding dress before the wedding, maybe it will push through. XVII. Native American: 1. From Apache to Cheyenne and Hopi to Sioux, Native American wedding customs are beautiful and vary according to tribe. One custom in particular requires the bride and groom to wash their hands to cleanse away evil and previous lovers. 2. Ceremonies can be held in chapels, historical landmarks, Indian monuments, or reservations. Pow Wow drums provide lively music for the wedding reception festivities. 3. The Blanket Ceremony – This ritual entails using two blue blankets to represent the couple’s past lives. The couple are wrapped in blue blankets and led to a sacred circle of fire. The officiating person or spiritual leader blesses the union and the couple shed the blue blankets and enveloped by relatives in a single white blanket which represents their new life. Under the white blanket, it’s customary that the couples embrace and kiss. The white blanket is usually kept and displayed in the couple’s home. 4. The Native American bride may wear a white dress or a beautiful long leather dress with beading and traditional colors woven into the fabric. The traditional colors of Native Americans include White for east, Blue for south, Yellow for west, and Black for north. 5. The wedding feast consists of ceremonial foods such as white and yellow corn prepared in a delicious corn mush. The white represents the groom and the yellow represents the bride. The two types of corn are mixed to represent the new union.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Final draft short story Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers

Final draft short story Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers Creative writing Final draft short story It was a hot summer day in Bethlehem, USA, all the kids were coming home for their summer vacations. The town that was once calm and peaceful, was now crowded. Everyone was complaining about all those noisy kids in town, but deep down they were very happy, everybody loved that time of the year. Those noisy kids were the ones who brought life to that small town. Stephen, the hot guy in town was there, all the girls dreamed about him. He was tall and athletic, he had a golden blonde hair, and eyes as blue as the sky in summer; there wasnt one girl who didnt at least once dreamed about him. Oh wait, there was Sara, Sara didnt stand Stephen. According to her, Stephen was to full of himself. Let me explain why, Stephen was the son of the mayor, he had some jerk friends, and he dated a girl who would be a perfect witch if she knew how to cast spells. Now, its hard to believe that a person surrounded by people who would be perfect villains in a movie is a nice guy. Yes I know its funny, but its real, Stephen was a really good guy. Sara was short, she had red hair, green eyes and freckles on her cheeks, which was something she hated, but I personally thought it was very cute. She was the Pastor's daughter. Therefore, there were certain things that the others did, but she couldnt. For example, she couldnt go to parties because her father wouldnt let her. He even controlled what she wore every day, poor Sara if she had a dress or a skirt above her knees, shorts? Forget it, he would look at them as if he was seeing the devil itself. Pastor Thomas was very strict. There was a welcome party, which the popular guys organized every year, and only the popular guys and girls in town went to that party. This year it would be different, they would invite everyone in town, and Lindsay and her friends would take care of every single detail to make sure nothing went wrong. The party was going to be at Stephens house, they would have all kinds of food, mexican, American, chinese, and many others. As for the drinks, since they were underage, they were not allowed to have alcoholic drinks, but since Ryan and Chris, Stephens friends were so smart, when it comes to parties of course, because at school it was a whole different story. But never mind, they found out a way to sneak alcohol into the party without anyone knowing. Lindsay was Stephen's girlfriend; every girl in town was jealous of her. She was what we call "the hot girl," tall, with a perfect blonde hair and a body that even the world's most famous supermodel would want. However, even with all that outside beauty, Lindsay was very ugly on the inside. She once cut a girl's hair because she didnt like the color, can you imagine these? She dropped a bucket full of white paint on Camila's head the day she was performing in the town's local auditorium. Lindsay was just awful. So, the party was on Saturday, everyone wanted to go as pretty as they could, specially the girls. Sara was invited too, and after a war to convince her father to let her go, she finally did it. Now, the problem was what to wear. All the girls were looking for the best outfit, but they had to be very careful not to outshine Lindsay, the princess of the town, or worse, not to wear the same thing as her. Last year, the girl that wore a bracelet that looked kind of like hers, was thrown into the lake. Fortunately she is alive, but she is now traumatized and doesnt want to go to one of these parties again. Finally Saturday, Lindsay as usual was stunning, she wore a short blue dress that showed a little bit more than we wanted to see, she had her hair pulled into a perfect ponytail and a perfect makeup of course. Stephen was also there, he had a red polo

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The eNotes Blog Thatll Be a Gazillion Dollars, Plus Tax The High Cost ofTextbooks

Thatll Be a Gazillion Dollars, Plus Tax The High Cost ofTextbooks I remember the first time I had to buy books as an undergraduate.   I took my schedule and dutifully pulled book after book off the shelves for my courses and tried not to hyperventilate as I mentally tallied the increasing tab. Since I was a literature major, I was relatively lucky. My trade paper readings were typically between $20 and $40 dollars, but there were usually three or four required books per class. In addition to the required books, there was frequently a required course packet, a collection of copywritten essays the professor had had copied and bound. These course packets could vary widely in price, but I do not recall any being less than fifty dollars.   With a six course load, books fees were hundreds of dollars every single semester. Yet, looking at the science majors cart beside me, I knew I was getting off easy. Just one of their hefty, hardcover textbooks was $200 or more. We all stood in line and wondered just how long a person could survive on Ramen noodles Now, I graduated (staticcracklingmumbling) years ago. Okay ten years agowith my Masters degree. Since then, there have been incredible technological advances: no one knew a Nook or a Kindle or an iPad could even be a thing in the world in 2003. If we had known such innovations were coming, Im certain most of us would have guessed ebooks would have made textbooks and other materials far cheaper for students. Nope. Let me say that louder. NOPE. In fact, textbooks have gone up EIGHT HUNDRED AND TWELVE PERCENT since 1978!   Look! Ummm, what? And why? Both  The Atlantic  and  Slate  have recently written about this issue. In Slate, Kevin Carey puts some of the blame on professors who order up their wish list of course materials for their classes with little regard to how necessary the book is to their class. (I cannot say that this has been my experience as a professor, but perhaps that is because I teach in a relatively low-income district. We are all hyper  aware of how much our students have to shell out for required materials and make every effort to minimize those costs.) Carey also identifies another reason for the elevation of textbook costs: bundling.   Publishers include things like software or handbooks that you may not want or need, either as a student or a professor, but you have no choice in the matter; you have to buy the bundle. Still, the move to digital textbooks is increasing   and this astronomical rise in prices is likely a last-ditch effort for the textbook publishing moberrr.. businessto collect all the money possible while they can. I wonder whats going to happen to the price of Ramen noodles in ten years?

Monday, November 4, 2019

Cyber securiy and cloudl computing Research Proposal

Cyber securiy and cloudl computing - Research Proposal Example several information technology (IT) based processing including cloud computing, social media networking, international communication, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Another aspect of the revolution is accessibility of the internet, whereby it has become easier for a person to have access to the internet today than two decades back. With the use of media devices such as smart phones, smart watches, and tablet computers, the internet is today one of the most portable technological inventions that can fit into every corner and space (Ziltrain, 2008). Indeed it cannot be denied that the revolution that has characterised the internet has several benefits to offer the ordinary user. In the estimation of Rehmeyer (2007), not only does the use of the internet today offers advantages but that the absence or non-usage of the internet comes with so much discomfort and disadvantages. Even though this position cannot be debated, the risks and vulnerabilities that the complexity o f the internet poses to individual, organisations and nations cannot be denied. In the opinion of Owens and Lin (2009), the best way to make the most out of the internet in today’s complex dynamic Web 2.0 environment is to ensure adequate cyber security for users. Without this, the list of how beneficial the internet is in today’s environment can go on but the real value that is expected to be derived may never be achieved to its fullest. The reason for this claim is that as news of cyber breaches continues to flood the airwaves, people become sceptical about their fate in using the complex and dynamic Web 2.0 for various purposes including cloud computing and electronic commerce (e-commerce) (Ziltrain, 2008). In such an atmosphere of mistrust and fear, the Web 2.0 will be seen as useful only for some of the most conventional purposes that come with limited or no risk such as gaming, information search, and downloading. Meanwhile as it has been hinted already, there are several

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Developments in the media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Developments in the media - Essay Example The nature of the electronic medium and the ease and facility of access, distribution, and duplication afforded by the Internet has made it very difficult for Governments to devise effective systems to regulate content on the Internet and prevent the exploitation of impressionable youngsters. While several measures have been taken to tackle the problem, the difficulties in pinpointing jurisdiction and the absence of effective filtering methods are significant drawbacks in bringing about effective regulation to protect children from pedophiles and distributors of obscene material. Internet and regulation: One of the major issues that need to be considered is the enormous capacity for copying and reproduction that is afforded by the digital environment.3 In a digital environment, with free availability of information and the facility for easy duplication of material coupled with the difficulties in restricting access, potent dangers are posed to children who may be exposed to offensive , the pornographic material on the Net. For example, Lewis has discussed the scope of the reforms to the Sexual Offenders Act of 1997 by way of the Sexual Offences Act of 2003, as a result of which a wider range of offensive activities against children has been brought under the purview of protection offered for children who are vulnerable to sexual abuse4. This Act also creates a new offense of â€Å"grooming† whereby a person attempting to lure a child into a sexual activity will be guilty even if the actual offense has not occurred.

Thursday, October 31, 2019


CULTURAL METAPHORS and THE WEEKLY CULTURAL FOCUS SECTIONS (japan) - Research Proposal Example of the culture is important not only to facilitate proper business transactions but also since total comprehension of a different culture gives room for appreciation of other cultures thereby promoting peaceful coexistence. Therefore, an understanding of the Japanese culture boosts my future career endeavors as an organization’s representative in international forums. Nonetheless, cultural studies require extensive research from different resources ranging from the internet to books among others. The Japanese culture has been covered by relatively many books that are dependable. As such, most of my research will be based on books through the guidance of the librarian on the best reference books. Additionally, I plan to use the internet since it proven to be a great resource especially for information on current issues such as through newspapers and journals. After picking the best at least five references, I will use them to come up with an annotated bibliography which is essential in drawing summaries for the final paper. With this I hope to not only have created an excellent final paper but also to have gained sufficient knowledge regarding the Japanese

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Thesis for POS Systems Essay Example for Free

Thesis for POS Systems Essay ABSTRACT Several threats affect the survival of small, independent retail companies. Adoption and use of Point-of-Sale (POS) systems may offer important benefits to counter these threats. POS systems are not widely used by these retailers, however. This research investigates the determinants of the adoption of POS systems using a conceptual model based on existing adoption theories. Based on this, a survey has been held among 37 Dutch small, independent retailers, to answer the question what the most important determinants for POS system adoption are. This study furthers theory on IT adoption, specifically for small organizations. The practical relevance is that its findings may help in improving POS system adoption. . INTRODUCTION The Dutch retail sector consists for 94% of small retail organizations (≠¤10 employees), altogether employing around 250,000 persons. The retail sector is noticeably present in the trade-driven Dutch economy and acts as an intermediary between industry and consumer. The sector is an important and relevant subject of study from an economical, social and cultural perspective. In this paper we focus on in-store retailing. The environment of this type of retail trade is under pressure. Several interacting threats, like globalization, demanding consumers, increasing administrative burden and an economic recession force the retailers into action. Information and communication technology (ICT) is a double-edged sword in this context (cf. Turban, King, Viehland and Lee, 2004). On the one hand, it can be a threat to smaller retailers for its disintermediation effects and competition through e-tailing (cf. Chircu and Kauffman, 1999), and by its supply chain management effectuation of the larger(franchise) organizations (cf. David, 2008). On the other hand, ICT likewise provides opportunities to smaller retailers, like opening up new sales channels, reducing administrative tasks and/or enabling strategic management of their enterprise (Turban et al., 2004). A specific type of retail ICT that can be employed to achieve effective store management is a ‘Point-of-Sale’ (POS) system. POS systems are defined in many different ways. On Wikipedia, a retail POS system is defined as â€Å"a computer, monitor, cash drawer, receipt printer, customer display and a barcode scanner†. Webopedia.com defines a POS system as â€Å"the capturing of data and customer payment information at a physical location when goods or services are bought and sold†. YourDictionary.com defines it as: â€Å"A comprehensive computerized checkout system that includes a bar-code scanner, receipt printer, cash drawer, credit and debit card scanner, monitor, and inventory management software. A point-of-sale system tracks sales and identifies inventory levels in real time†. There are many different types and brands of POS systems available. eBay.com and BuyerZone.com provide a web-based ‘Point of Sale System Buying Guide’, containing over 4,000 different POS equipments for retailers, and 91 different types of POS software. The POS system market in The Netherlands contains no less than 150 vendors, each offering their own ‘unique’ software package. POS systems enable retailers to consult more detailed management information compared to traditional cash registers and Electronic Cash Registers (ECRs). As this management information is based on sales figures, retailers can improve their business by maintaining a better product strategy and pursuing a more efficient replenishment process matching customer demand, alleviating what is often referred to as the ‘bullwhip effect’ (Lee, Padmanabhan and Whang, 1997). This enables inventory optimization, minimizing storage space and ‘sold-out’ situations. Moreover, cash slips can be stored electronically and the results can be brought up in the POS system immediately, both reducing time spent on administrative tasks. This is specifically relevant for The Netherlands, where the administrative burden for SMEs has increased through regulations LITERATURE REVIEW: ADOPTION MODELS In this section we review eight different studies on the adoption of information systems, which were found through literature study. The meta literature search focused on theories and models concerning IS/IT adoption, more specifically of small businesses, retail and/or POS systems. Below, as a result, we first describe two generic adoption models with regard to IS/IT adoption. Next, we discuss six models that address adoption within the retail or small business domain. Generic models The first generic adoption model we refer to here is that of Rogers (2003). His Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory describes the adoption of innovations over time. He ascribes the dynamics of adoption behaviour in terms of different groups of people, like innovators and laggards. His theory also indicates how an individual or organisation (i.e. any decision-making unit) decides to adopt (or not) an innovation. This adoption process consists of five different stages: knowledge acquisition, persuasion, adoption, implementation and confirmation. Rogers specifies three groups of determinants that influence this process: characteristics of the decision-making unit, characteristics of the innovation and information channels. Based on DOI theory, factors concerning the decision-making unit that positively influence adoption are e.g. high social status, low age and financial flexibility. According to DOI, important characteristics of an innovation include: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability (the degree to which it can be experimented with), and observability (the visibility of its results). Information channels (personal and mass communication channels) are required to spread knowledge of an innovation. The second generic adoption model is based on Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis (2003), who reviewed technology acceptance models, among which the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1986) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985). They used elements of each model for a new unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Contrary to Rogers’ model, UTAUT concentrates on the adoption behaviour of individuals. In this model, four constructs are defined as determinants of a user’s acceptance and behaviour. Performance expectancy relates to the degree to which the technology is expected to improve job performance. Effort expectancy concerns the ease of use associated with the technology. Social influence is defined as â€Å"[t]he degree to which an individual perceives that important others believe he or she should use the new system† (Venkatesh et al., 2003). Finally, the construct facilitating conditions deals with the degree to which a support infrastructure for the technology is believed to exist. In addition, these four constructs are modelled to be influenced by four so-called moderators, i.e. gender, age, experience and voluntariness. Retail and SME-specific models We will discuss six main studies and their adoption models below. First, the study by Julien and Raymond (1994) can be mentioned. Their technology adoption model for the retail sector proposes eight organizational aspects as determinants of technology adoption: centralization, complexity, size, status (i.e. independent/affiliated), sector, and assertiveness, rationality, and interaction of the organizational strategy. These determinants were identified in earlier research on technology adoption in small organizations. Technology adoption in this case concerned the use of hardware (business computing, POS systems and telecomputing) and software. In the study 79 firms in food, hardware and clothing were assessed through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Clothing firms and large firms were less apt to use POS systems, while firms that had a longer organizational planning horizon used POS systems more often. Secondly, Chau (1995) researched which factors are important for small businesses in software selection. His research focused on packaged software, as small organizations usually do not buy custom developed software, due to their limited resources. Chau argues that owners/managers of small organizations are less focused on budgeting techniques like ‘net present value’ or ‘internal rate of return’ to make decisions on software investments. Instead, they focus more on criteria aimed at the functionalities and popularity of the software. Also, opinions of vendors, employees, consultants or acquaintances are believed to influence decision making. Based on empirical research among 122 small businesses, he found that the importance of selection criteria varied between owners and managers. In general, owners seem to focus more on technical aspects, while managers focus more on non-technical aspects. Third, Thong and Yap (1995) developed a model based on the notion that the adoption process of small businesses differs from that of large firms. CEOs play a major role in small firms as they are the primary decisions makers. In their research, the authors developed a causal model, which assumes that the following factors are positively correlated with the likeliness of IT adoption for small firms: business size, competitiveness of the business environment, information intensity, innovativeness, and attitude towards adoption of IT and IT knowledge. SYNTHESIS: CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESES In the previous section, a total of eight models for adoption have been discussed. Most models view the (retail) organization and/or its owner as the decision-making unit. In small organizations, the owner-manager/CEO almost by definition determines IT investments and the IT strategy. Thong and Yap (1995), Ekanem (2005) and Chau (1995) all point out this phenomenon. Therefore, we consider personal variables of the owner (like age and gender) as key determinants of POS adoption by retailers. In addition, organizational characteristics (like size and competition) can be considered as additional, contextual determinants of the IT adoption decision.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+

Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+ Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+ During Anodic Disolution of Iron in NaCl Electrolyte R.K Upadhyay1, Arbind Kumar2 and P.K Srivastava3 Abstract: Taguchi’s orthogonal array L9 has been effectively used to study the effect of process parameters such as voltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentration on material removal rate in context of two different types of electrolyte namely aqueous NaCl solution and electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions. The results indicated that Cu2+ has a catalytic effect on the anodic dissolution of iron, which restrict the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ and increases the dissolution rate during machining. The experimental results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method to investigate the significance and percentage contribution of individual process parameters on performance characteristics. Key Words: Electrochemical Machining, Aqueous NaCl, Cu2+, Parameters, Oxidation, Material Removal rate. Introduction: Electrochemical machining (ECM) has got an industrial importance due to its capability of controlled atomic level metal removal1. It is an anodic dissolution  process based on electrolysis, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. ECM has been successfully employed in aerospace, automobile industries and now gaining much importance in the electronics and other high-tech industries for the fabrication of micro components2-3. Mask less and through mask electrochemical micromachining techniques have been successively used thin films and foils of materials those are difficult to machine by other methods4-5. Electrochemical machining is low voltage (5-25 volt) machining process which offers high metal removal rate and also capable to machine hard conductive materials into complicated profiles without any thermal damages thus suitable for mass production work with low labor requirements6-7. The dissolution rate is highly reliant on the selection of electroly tes and its current carrying capacity. On increasing the concentration of electrolyte solution dissolution rate also increases but excess concentration allows the crystal formation, which may damage the accessories of ECM and reduce the volume of electrolyte in flow pipes. The conductivity of electrolyte depends not only on the concentration but also on ionic interaction. Thus, the current carrying process done by the base electrolyte is small, but H+ and OH ions produced in electrolysis of water play important role8-9. The achievement of higher dissolution rate in ECM is a strong research base which is possible by change in composition of electrolyte solution to promote catalytic effect during dissolution10. During electrochemical machining of iron at low current density it has been observed that Fe+ cation formed very easily but it is highly unstable and immediately oxidizes into Fe2+ state. Increase in current density leads to simultaneous production of Fe2+ and Fe3+, at higher current density apparent valence of iron increases above three11. Therefore, to stabilized Fe2+ in the aqueous solution is a challenge during dissolution. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND PRINCIPLE OF ECM: Fig 1 Experimental set-up ECM is an anodic dissolution process works on the principle of Faradays law. While machining of iron in presence of aqueous NaCl electrolyte solution the following chemical reactions are observed12. Reactions at Cathode: Na+ + e à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ Na Na + H2O à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ NaOH + H+ 2H+ + 2e à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ H2 It shows that only hydrogen gas will evolve at cathode. When pure iron is being machined electrochemically the following reactions would occur13-14. Fe à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ Fe2++ 2e Fe2+ + 2Cl à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ FeCl2 Fe2+ + 2(OH) à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ Fe(OH)2 FeCl2 + 2(OH) à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ Fe(OH)2 + 2Cl 2Cl Cl2 + 2e 2FeCl2 + Cl2 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ 2FeCl3 H+ + Cl à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ HCl 2Fe(OH)2 + H2O +O2 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ 2Fe(OH)3 Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ FeCl3+ 3H2O FeCl3+ 3NaOH à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³ Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl It shows that during electrochemical machining of iron in NaCl electrolyte, iron is removed as Fe(OH)2 and precipitated as sludge while sodium chloride is recovered back. Due to further reaction, formation of Fe(OH)3 is also possible Which, confirms the existence of iron in +2 and +3 states during dissolution. Determination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in electrolyte solution: The electrolyte solution containing Fe+2 and Fe+3 ions was collected. Fe+2 ions were determined directly by titrating a known volume of iron electrolyte solution with K2Cr2 O7 in acidic medium (HCl). Cr2O7 2- + 6Fe+2 + 14H+ = 2Cr+3 + 6Fe +3 + 7H2O Internal indicator N- phenyl anthranilic acid was used to mark the end point. Fe+3 ions were determined after all the Fe+3 ions are reduced into Fe+2 ions with SnCl2 in presence HCl in hot. Sn+2 + 2Fe +3 = Sn+4 + 2Fe+2 The solution was then cooled and excess SnCl2 was removed by adding HgCl2 solution. 2Hg+2 + Sn+2 +Cl = Sn+4 +Hg2Cl2 (white ppt) Titration of known volume of standard solution was done using standard solution of K2Cr2O7 in acidic medium. From the volume of K2Cr2O7 used, the total amount of Fe+2 and Fe+3 ions was determined. The amount of Fe+3 ion was determined by subtracting amount of Fe+2 which is determined earlier. Material removal rate during electrochemical machining is greatly influenced by dissolution valence. As the dissolution valence decreases MRR increases. In this paper an approach is made to enhance the electrochemical dissolution of iron through control of valency (transition) therefore, in this direction, use of electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ is suggested. The dissolution limit of iron by Cu2+ ions can be is justified by considering the standard electron potential E ° for Cu2+, Fe/Fe2+and Fe/Fe3+ described as follows15. Cu2+ + 2e- Cu E ° = +0.34V Fe2+ + 2e- Fe E ° = -0.44V Fe3+ + e- Fe2+ E ° = +0.77V As E ° for Cu2+ Cu is more positive than Fe2+ Fe, Cu2 +will oxidize Fe to Fe2+. However, as E ° for Cu2+ Cu is less positive than Fe3+ Fe2+, Cu2+ will not oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+. Making electrolyte solution: 250 gramsof NaCl was mixed with400 gramsof CuSO4 in10 litersof water. The mixture is stirred well for 2 minutes then heated until it loses its green color. The crystals of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) and copper chloride (CuCl2) were removed by filtering the solution and thi the solution thus obtained was saturated solution of Na2SO4 containing Cu2+ ions which participates in anodic dissolution process. MACHINING CONDITIONS: Following machining parameters are selected on the basis of performance characteristics, Table1: Machining conditions for analysis SELECTION OF MACHINING PROCESS PARAMETERS Table 2 shows machining parameters and selected levels for experimental procedure Table 2: Process parameter and their levels Measurement of MRR The initial weight of the work piece was taken for calculation of MRR. Keeping the flow rate constant at 15 lit/min and the rest of the parameters are set according to table 1 for each run. Work piece was kept horizontal, and cylindrical electrode was used for machining. Gap between tool and workpiece was maintained carefully to avoid the choking. The electrode was fed continuously towards the work piece during machining and time was recorded. After machining, the cavity was formed on the work-piece. The final weight of the work-piece was taken and material removal rate was calculated as per the following formula: MRR= †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. (1) EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: The design resulted in total of eighteen experiments, which are performed at 10V-18V supply voltage, 10-30 g/lit electrolyte concentration and 0.0001-0.0005 cm/sec feed rate as the values for the control variables. The responses measured are Material removal rate (MRR) Scheme of the experiments is as shown in Table 3. Table 3: Taguchi L9 OA for MRR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) when machinating in presence of NaCl electrolyte solution: Percentage contribution of each parameter on material removal rate during electrochemical machining of iron in aqueous NaCl electrolyte solution is shown in table 4 and represented graphically in figure 2. Table 4: ANOVA for MRR [NaCl as electrolyte] Fig 2. Contributions of the parameters when machining in presence of aqueous NaCl electrolyte solution Regression Equation: MRR= -0.01096 +0.002296Voltage +64.0FeedRate +0.000540Concentration. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦(2) The equation (2) shows that Feed rate is dominant factor affecting MRR. The graphs shown in figure 3 are plotted from the regression equation (2). Fig 3. Main Effects Plot for SN ratios (NaCl electrolyte solution) Figure shows the main effect plot of the MRR depicting the effect of various machining parameters on MRR. As seen from the plot obtained, the MRR increased with increase in both voltage and feed rate. This is due to the fact that with increase in voltage the current increases in the inter electrode gap thus increasing the MRR. Feed rate is another important parameter. Increase in feed rate results in decrease of the conducting path between the workpiece and the tool hence resulting in high current density thus enhancing the rapid anodic dissolution. An overall increase in the MRR was also observed with increase in the concentration as the larger number of ions associated with the machining process which increases the machining current and thus results in higher MRR. Effects of selected process variables (i.e. Voltage, Feed rate and Concentration) on material removal rate (MRR) at different sets of conditions while machining in presence of aqueous NaCl solution are shown in figure 4(a), 4(b) and 4(c). Fig. 4(a) Effects of Voltage on material Fig. 4(b) Effects of Feed rate on material removal for different Concentration, removal for different Voltage, Feed rate= 0.0001 cm/sec. Concentration = 20 g/lit. Fig.4(c) Effects of Concentration on material removal for different Feed rates, Voltage= 14 V NaCl electrolyte tend to promote the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ during the dissolution process the maximum MRR obtained during machining of iron in aqueous NaCl solution recorded was 0.0653 cm3/sec. Although the higher concentration of NaCl is favorable for better MRR but excess concentration allows the crystal formation which reduces the volume of electrolyte in flow pipes and also affects the dissolution rate. Analysis of variance when machining in presence of electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions Percentage contribution of each parameter on material removal rate during electrochemical machining of iron in electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions is shown in table 5 and represented graphically in figure 5. Table 5 ANOVA for MRR [electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions] Fig 5. Contributions of the parameters when machining in presence of electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions Regression Equation: MRR = -0.0157 +0.002908Voltage +75.3FeedRate +0.000602Concentration. .†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. (3) The equation (3) shows that voltage is dominant factor affecting MRR. The graphs shown in figure 6 are plotted from the regression equation (3). Fig 6. Main Effects Plot for SN ratios (electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions) The oxidation of Fe2+ in to Fe3+ is restricted due to the presence of Cu2+ in electrolyte solution which promotes the higher dissolution rate during machining. The influence of selected process variables i.e. Voltage, Feed rate and Concentration on material removal rate at different sets of conditions in presence of electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions are shown in figure 7(a), 7(b) and 7(c) respectively. Fig. 7(a) Effects of Voltage on material Fig. 7(b) Effects of Feed rate on material removal for different Concentration, removal for different Voltage, Feed rate= 0.0001 cm/sec. Concentration = 20 g/lit. Fig. 7(c) Effects of Concentration on material removal for different Feed rates, Voltage= 14 V. The maximum MRR obtained during machining of iron in presence of Cu2 electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions was 0.0774 cm3/sec, which is 18.5% more when compared with aqueous NaCl electrolyte. CONCLUSION The electrochemical characteristics of iron in aqueous NaCl solution and electrolyte solution containing Cu2+ ions has been analyzed experimentally to investigate the influence of process parameters on MRR. The Process parameters such as voltage, feed rate, Electrolyte concentration, were successfully controlled. The different combinations of these parameters were used for the experimentation in order to determine their influence on MRR. The experiment was performed by varying all parameters in combination as per L9 orthogonal array. The experimental observations support the conclusion that the presence of Cu2+ ions in electrolyte solution restrict the further oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ and enhance the low valence dissolution of iron during machining. Design of experiments and analysis of variance helped in identifying the significant parameters affecting MRR. The best combination of the parameters are Voltage= 18 V, Feed Rate=0.0005 cm/sec and electrolyte Concentration = 20 g/lit whe n using a solution containing Cu2+ ions as electrolyte. The maximum MRR obtained was 18.5 % higher when compared with aqueous NaCl electrolyte for the same set of working conditions. Acknowledgement: I express my sincere thanks to Department of Applied Chemistry BIT Extension Centre Deoghar for their cooperation to conduct the experiments in order to observe the catalytic behavior of Cu2+ ions. References: 1.Sekar T, Marappan R. Experimental investigations into the influencing parameters of electrochemical machining of AISI 202. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems 2008; 7(2):337-43. 2.Bhattacharyya B, Munda J. Experimental investigation on the influence of Electrochemical machining parameters on machining rate and accuracy in micromachining domain. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 2003; 43(13):1301-10. 3. Kozak J, Rajurkar KP, Makkar Y, Selected problems of microelectrochemical machining Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2004; 149: 426– 431. 4. Bhattacharya B, Doloi B and Sridhar PJ. Electrochemical Micromachining: New possibilities for Micro- Manufacturing. J. Material. Proc.Tech 2001;113:301-305. 5. Bhattacharyya B, Malapati M, Munda J, Sarkar A. Influence of tool vibration on Machining performance in electrochemical micro-machining of copper International Journal of Machine Tool and Manufacture 2007; 47: 335–342. 6.Hocheng H, Sun YH, Lin SC, Kao PS. A material removal analysis of Electrochemical machining using flat-end cathode. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2003; 140:264- 268. 7.Yong L, Di Zhu, Yongbin, Zeng, Shaofu Huang, Hongbing Yu. Experimental Investigation on Complex Structures Machining by Electrochemical Micromachining Technology, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 2010; 23:578-584. 8.Mukherjee SK, Kumar S, Srivastava PK. Effect of electrolyte on current- carrying process in ECM, I Mech E Part C J. Mechanical Engineering Science 2007; 221:1415-1419. 9. Byk MV, Tkalenko DA and Tkalenko MD. On participation of hydroxide ions in the anodic dissolution of metals in aqueous electrolyte solution. Prot Met t 2004; 40(3): 294-296. 10.Ayyappan S and Sivakumar K. Investigation of electrochemical machining characteristics of 20MnCr5 alloy steel using potassium dichromate mixed aqueous NaCl electrolyte and optimization of process parameters.Proc I MechE part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture 2014. 11.Srivastava PK, Kumar R, Barhai PK. Energy Profile and Thermodynamic Feasibility of Iron(I) during Electrochemical Machining of Iron.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering 2013; 41:1146-1158. 12.Mukherjee SK, Kumar S, Srivastava PK. Effect of over voltage on material removal rate during Electrochemical Machining. Tamkand Journal of Science and Engineering 2005; 8: 23- 28. 13. Neto JC.d.S, Silva, EMd, Silva MBd. Intervening variables in electrochemical machining Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2006; 179:92–96. 14.Mount AR, Muir RN. Dissolution characteristics of iron and stainless steels in chloride under electrochemical machining conditions; Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2007;154: 3: E57; E61. 15. Electrochemistry 3: Cell potentials and thermodynamics, chemwiki.ucdavis.edu †º Analytical Chemistry †º Electrochemistry (2014, accessed 15 May 2015). Stephen K. Lower. Redox equilibria in natural waters: Chem1 Environmental Chemistry, http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/pdf/c3redox.pdf(1998, accessed 15 May 2015). 1