Monday, September 2, 2019
Identification of Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Unknown Bacteria Essay
Obesity is a word that everyone is currently familiar with. The media and health professionals have been working tirelessly to make the general public aware of its prevalence and detriments to society. With the staggering statistics of 32.2% prevalence in adults and a range of 13.9% to 18.9% prevalence in children and adolescents, these outstanding numbers stand out for themselves. (1) Increasing rates of obesity are associated with higher risk factors for other diseases such as; Type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, diverticulitis, cancer of the endometrium, and breast cancer. (2) Knowing how to combat obesity will lead to decreased complications of the condition as well as a lower risk factor for other diseases. In light of these significant numbers, our group chose to explore the relationship of dietary fiber to aid in the prevention and treatment of obesity, therefore also reducing the incidence other diseases. Our focus was on making a hot meal with a simple modification to increase the dietary fiber available. The original recipe is a white rice pilaf with the adjustment being made with a substitution of brown rice. This change will boost the fiber intake from 0.8g per serving to 2.6g per serving. The represents a substantial jump in accessibility to a vital part of our diet. We expect favorable results in the acceptance of our modification. The texture is a bit hardier, cooking time is longer, and cost is slightly higher, but we believe the benefits outweigh these variables. The RDA recommends between 25g-30g a day, but the average American receives only 12g-13g per day.(3) With this easy alteration, we hope to increase these low numbers that the average American receives up to the reco mmended levels. Purpose The purpose of our research study is to substitute brown rice for white rice in a pilaf. This pilaf can be eaten for lunch or dinner as a hot side dish or main dish. It is intended to introduce a serving of a whole grain in the diet and with it bring an increase dietary fiber. Literature Review Introduction The frequent occurrence of this disease, as mentioned above, has produced many scientific research studies concentrating on remedying and reversing the trend. Finding and interpreting the results was uncomplicated. I used the online databases; Google Scholar, Medline, and Cinhal to gather my data. My keywords included obesity and dietary fiber. I assembled strong studies that encompassed sample sizes ranging from 11-74,091 participants, with timelines up to twelve years, and accommodating populations in the United States, Spain, Finland, Brazil, Italy, Greece, the former Yugoslavia, Japan, Serbia, Belgrade, and The Netherlands. These studies centered on three different aspects of the relationship between dietary fiber and weight. These are expanded upon below. A synopsis of the reviewed studies can be found in Appendix 1. Correlations of the Development of Obesity Seven out of the ten studies compared the connection between dietary fiber intake and the development or current status of obesity. (2, 4-9) All studies included self reported questionnaires to collect sociodemographic, health history, physical activity, anthropometric, bowel movements, and dietary data. The most common dietary form used was the Food Frequency Questionnaire, with six complying. (2, 4-5, 7-9) The last study utilized twenty-four hour recalls. (6) Other measurements included height, weight, and subscapular skinfold thickness. The entire body of findings revealed that higher fiber intake was inversely related to long term weight gain and increased body fat. Reporting measures were diverse but included the same positive trend. Higher fiber intake equated to an average weight of 1.52kg less, a 48-49% lower risk of weight gain, and a BMI that was 1.5 less when compared to low fiber intake. Some studies investigated other variables in addition to increasing fiber. One study addressed physical activity in addition to increased fiber as a therapy. (5) This study along with another explored the incorporation of a low fat diet along with the high fiber diet. In both, dietary fat was not directly associated with reduction of body fat or obesity but showed a compounding result when correlated with higher fiber. A lower BMI difference of 2.75 was established on a low fat and high fiber diet. (6) Development of Diseases related to Obesity Two studies were taken on to look into the increased use of fiber to decrease the risk of obesity leading to Type 2 diabetes. (10, 11) In a large cohort with a sample size just under 36,000, self reported dietary and weight figures were collected. (10) After six years of follow up, the statistics were analyzed and the results showed a 22% lower risk of the development of diabetes from the highest quintile of dietary fiber intake. These optimistic results were in consensus with the other study. This study had more stringent controls and divided participants into two groups. (11) One received standard care and the other received intensive exercise and dietary counseling. Oral glucose tolerance tests and body composition measurements were calculated. After a four year follow up, the high fiber group gained 75% less than their low fiber counterparts, 0.7kg gain versus 3.1kg gain, respectively. Treatment of Obesity The last study out of the ten engaged the most scientific disciplines. (12) The sample was already obese. They participated in controlled feeding in a metabolic kitchen. The cross over design allowed for six weeks on either a low or high fiber diet with a six week washout period in between them. Daily logs were kept and an OGTT and Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used every two weeks for measuring results. At the conclusion, fasting insulin was 10% lower, the AUC was lowered, and the rate of glucose infusion was higher after the higher fiber diet. Limitations All of the studies employed self reporting figures in some form, whether the basis of all of their information or for at least some part. This may lead to underreporting, overreporting, or misinterpretation. The definition of a whole-grain or high fiber food varied among studies. Recipe and ingredient databases or non-comprehensive food frequency questionnaires may aid in inaccurate recordings of intake. Although the study utilizing the metabolic kitchen was the best scientific representation among the studies it is worth mentioning that it was sponsored and funded by the General Mills Corporation. This could lead to a possible conflict of interest and hence a limitation to the studies findings. Conclusion The complete compilation of studies supports the purpose of our recipe modification. Each emphasized the importance of replacing low fiber foods with fiber rich foods to help prevent or reduce weight gain. The significant correlation between fiber and obesity has been established in this review. The protective role of fiber, along with physical activity and dietary fat, should be included in advice and management therapies tailored to this condition and other related to it. Materials and Methods For our subjective evaluation we designed three separate score cards; demographic, evaluation, and preference. Samples of the score cards can be found in Appendix 2. Sociodemographic For the demographic background we included questions regarding age range, household income range, ethnicity, and educations. We also included six questions probing background information on exposure and open-mindedness of our products.